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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl5024\margr1542\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn5027\margrsxn3321\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw720\colsr1130\colno2\colw2041 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb32\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 174}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 REFORMS : SOCIETY}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn5024\margrsxn1542\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li4\fi0\ri0\sb194\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 quetinial or sometimes triennial tours \i (anmamydna), \i0\expndtw19 so that they may come into direct touch with \expndtw9 people in the countryside (R.E. Ill and K.R.E.I). \expndtw0 Thirdly, he allowed the \i Pativedakas \i0 (Reporters) to in\-\expndtw6 form him about urgent public matters at all times wherever he may be (R.E. VI).\super 1\nosupersub  Fourthly, As"oka \expndtw0 granted to the \i Qdjukas, \i0 "set over many hundred thou\-\expndtw-1 sands of people", independence in the award of honours \i\expndtw-2 \{abhihale) \i0 and punishments \i (damdi) \i0 in order that they might discharge their duties confidently and fearlessly. \expndtw-3 They were, however, expected to maintain uniformity in \expndtw-6 penalties \i (damda-samata) \i0 as well as in judicial procedure \i\expndtw3 (yyavahara-samata) \i0 (P.E. IV). Lastly, the Emperor \expndtw-1 released prisoners on the anniversary of his coronation (P.E. V), and gave three days' respite to those sentenced \expndtw1 to death (P.E. IV).}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li14\fi0\ri0\sb194\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex81\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs26 Society}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li18\fi486\ri14\sb166\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 We get some glimpses of society as constituted in \expndtw-1 ASoka's time. It comprised religious orders like the \expndtw6 Brahmanas, Sramanas, and other Pasandas, among \expndtw5 which the Ajivikas and the Nirgranthas (Jains) were \expndtw2 the most prominent. These monks and ascetics spread \expndtw13 the truth as they conceived it, and promoted the \expndtw4 cause of learning by instruction and discussion. Be\-\expndtw-2 sides, there were the householders \i (grihasthas)., \i0 and \expndtw-1 curiously the edicts mention all the four divisions, viz., \expndtw-6 Brahmanas; soldiers and their chiefs \i (bhatamaya), \i0 corres\-\expndtw0 ponding to Ksatriyas; \i Ibhyas \i0 or Vaisyas (R.E.V); and \expndtw4 slaves and servants \i (dasabhataka\\ \i0 i.e., Sudras. The \expndtw-1 people were wont to perform many ceremonies to bring}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi418\ri4\sb241\sa0\sl-202\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1\nosupersub  The \i "Pativedakas \i0 were allowed by As*oka to report on state \expndtw1 matters at all times and places whether he was eating \i (bhimjamana-\expndtw-1 sa), \i0 or in the harem \i (prodhanamhi\\ \i0 or in the ante-chamber \i (gabha-\expndtw-3 garamhi\}, \i0 or in the royal ranch \i (yacamhi\}, \i0 or on horse-back \i (vimtamh)-\i0\expndtw5 religious study?), or in the pleasure gardens \i (uyamsu).}\par }